**Writing Games in Perl - Part 6 - Math for dummies**

Following posts 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 on the subject of writing games in Perl, now we are going to fix the math in the game.

In the first post, I used a very naive simplification of the movement calculation. I simply considered that the velocity was constant during the time of the frame and recalculated the final velocity after the frame so it would affect the next calculation.

I have to confess that I didn't do it just for the simplification of the code. I did it because of my lack of good understanding of math. Some people have noticed that I should've used a Runge-Kutta method to solve the problem, but, honestly, the math language is something that really requires a level of practice I simply don't have (I've been working on Information Systems for 12 years, now it's the first time I really miss calculus knowledge).

The problem I was trying to solve is: Considering I have a ball that is falling at a speed of 3 m/s with a gravity of 9.8 m/s², how far would it fall after 25 miliseconds (about 40 FPS). I'm strongly visually-oriented, so let me try to represent in some ascii-art what I was trying to find out.

position | . | I | . | | . | | | F | | | . 0------------------------- time

I was considering I had defined the position I (initial) and I wanted to know which was the position F (final).

It was only after I shared the problem with Edilson (a colleague that works in the same place as I do), and after he present me a sheet full of math calculations which I simply ignored, since I couldn't understand, and then he said me: "You're looking at the wrong graphic, this graphic is derived from another graphic, which is velocity vs time".

This was a very important realization for me, bear with me: Let's simplify the problem a bit, let's consider we have a constant velocity. The graphic of velocity vs time would be something like:

velocity | | | | | | |.......I..........F..... | | | | 0------------------------- time

You probably remember that in order to find out how much an object moved in a given time-frame, the formula would be:

ΔS = Δt * v

As I said before, I'm a very visually-oriented person, and at that point I figured out the following:

velocity | | | | | | | I..........F | | | | | | | | | | | | 0------------------------- time

Wait, that's a rectangle, its width is Δt and it's height is v, so the distance travelled is the area of the rectangle.

WAIT! That's the definition of Integral I've been reading in math books for a while and that never really meant anything to me because of all the math blabbering that really require consistent math practice to actually understand anything.

So now that I feel a lot less dumb, let's proceed to the problem at hand. The velocity in our game is lineary-variable, which means that its graphic over time will look like:

velocity | . | . | . | F | . | . | . | I | . |. | 0------------------------- time

The intial grahic on the position over time at the beggining of this post is derived from this graphic -- and this is actually the meaning of derivative -- so the distance travelled in a given time frame is the area of the trapezoid representing that time frame:

velocity | | | | F | . | | . | | . | | I | | | | | | | | | | 0------------------------- time

So, the answer to my initial question is just a matter of calculating that area:

Δs = ((vI + vF) * Δt)/2

It looks pretty easy now, and, in fact, I feel quite dumb for taking so long to realize that. But anyway, that is probably all the required math for a lot of games. I hope I wasn't the only one who had a hard time understading all that, and, anyway, now I can start to understand more complex integral and derivative calculations.

So, let's apply that to the code in our game, which happens to be at the Ball.pm file.

sub time_lapse { my ($self, $old_time, $new_time) = @_; my $elapsed = ($new_time - $old_time)/1000; # convert to seconds... my $vf_h = $self->vel_h + $self->acc_h * $elapsed; my $vf_v = $self->vel_v + ($self->acc_v - g) * $elapsed; my $ds_h = (($self->vel_h + $vf_h) * $elapsed) / 2; my $ds_v = (($self->vel_v + $vf_v) * $elapsed) / 2; $self->vel_h($vf_h); $self->vel_v($vf_v); $self->cen_h($self->cen_h + $ds_h); $self->cen_v($self->cen_v + $ds_v); }

I also fixed the code in the main loop that was re-calculating that instead of calling time_lapse.

foreach my $wall (@{$self->walls}) { if (my $coll = collide($ball, $wall, $frame_elapsed_time)) { # need to place the ball in the result after the bounce given # the time elapsed after the collision. $ball->time_lapse($oldtime, $oldtime + (($coll->time)*1000) - 1); if (defined $coll->axis && $coll->axis eq 'x') { $ball->vel_h($ball->vel_h * -1); } elsif (defined $coll->axis && $coll->axis eq 'y') { $ball->vel_v($ball->vel_v * -1); } elsif (defined $coll->axis && ref $coll->axis eq 'ARRAY') { my ($xv, $yv) = @{$coll->bounce_vector}; $ball->vel_h($xv); $ball->vel_v($yv); } else { warn 'BAD BALL!'; $ball->vel_h($ball->vel_h * -1); $ball->vel_v($ball->vel_v * -1); } return $self->handle_frame($oldtime + ($coll->time*1000), $now); } }

I'm not going to post any video for this post, since there's no visual difference. But I hope the ascii-art graphics are good enough.