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Name: Matthew Garrett
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Your Ubuntu-based container image is probably a copyright violation

I wrote about Canonical's Ubuntu IP policy here, but primarily in terms of its broader impact, but I mentioned a few specific cases. People seem to have picked up on the case of container images (especially Docker ones), so here's an unambiguous statement:

If you generate a container image that is not a 100% unmodified version of Ubuntu (ie, you have not removed or added anything), Canonical insist that you must ask them for permission to distribute it. The only alternative is to rebuild every binary package you wish to ship[1], removing all trademarks in the process. As I mentioned in my original post, the IP policy does not merely require you to remove trademarks that would cause infringement, it requires you to remove all trademarks - a strict reading would require you to remove every instance of the word "ubuntu" from the packages.

If you want to contact Canonical to request permission, you can do so here. Or you could just derive from Debian instead.

[1] Other than ones whose license explicitly grants permission to redistribute binaries and which do not permit any additional restrictions to be imposed upon the license grants - so any GPLed material is fine

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Syndicated 2015-07-20 19:33:04 from Matthew Garrett

Canonical's Ubuntu IP policy is garbage

(In order to avoid any ambiguity here, this is a personal opinion. The Free Software Foundation's opinion on this matter is here)

Canonical have a legal policy surrounding reuse of Intellectual Property they own in Ubuntu, and you can find it here. It's recently been modified to handle concerns raised by various people including the Free Software Foundation[1], who have some further opinions on the matter here. The net outcome is that Canonical made it explicit that if the license a piece of software is under explicitly says you can do something, you can do that even if the Ubuntu IP policy would otherwise forbid it.

Unfortunately, "Canonical have made it explicit that they're not attempting to violate the GPL" is about the nicest thing you can say about this. The most troubling statement is Any redistribution of modified versions of Ubuntu must be approved, certified or provided by Canonical if you are going to associate it with the Trademarks. Otherwise you must remove and replace the Trademarks and will need to recompile the source code to create your own binaries.. The apparent aim here is to avoid situations where people take Ubuntu, modify it and continue to pass it off as Ubuntu. But it reaches far further than that. Cases where this may apply include (but are not limited to):

  • Anyone producing a device that runs an operating system based on Ubuntu, even if it's entirely invisible to the user (eg, an embedded ARM device using Ubuntu as its base OS)
  • Anyone producing containers based on Ubuntu
  • Anyone producing cloud images (such as AMIs) based on Ubuntu

In each of these cases, a strict reading of the policy indicates that you are distributing a modified version of Ubuntu and therefore must either get it approved by Canonical or remove the trademarks and rebuild everything. The strange thing is that this doesn't limit itself to rebuilding packages that include Canonical's trademarks - there's a requirement that you rebuild all binaries.

Now obviously this is good engineering practice in a whole bunch of ways, but it's a huge pain in the ass. And to make things worse, Canonical won't clarify what they consider to be use of their trademarks. Many Ubuntu packages rebuilt from Debian include the word "ubuntu" in their version string. Many Ubuntu packages will contain the word "ubuntu" in maintainer email addresses. Many Ubuntu packages include references to Ubuntu (for instance, documentation might say "This configuration file is located under /etc/default in Debian and Ubuntu"). And many Ubuntu packages will include the compiler version string, which will include the word "ubuntu". Realistically, there's no risk of confusion by using the trademarks in this way, and as a consequence there would be no infringement under trademark law. But Canonical aren't using trademark law here. Canonical assert that they hold copyright over binaries that they have built form source, and require that for you to have permission to redistribute these binaries under copyright law you must remove the trademarks. This means that it doesn't matter whether your use of the trademarks would be infringing or not - you're required to remove them, because fuck you that's why.

This is a huge overreach. It's hostile to free software, in that it makes it significantly more difficult to produce derivative works of Ubuntu and doesn't benefit the community in the process. It's hostile to our understanding of IP law, in that it claims that the mechanical process of turning source code into binaries creates an independently copyrightable work. And in some cases it may make it impossible to create derivative works that interoperate with Ubuntu due to applications making assumptions about the presence of strings.

It'd be easy write this off as an over the top misinterpretation of the policy if it hadn't been confirmed by the Ubuntu Community Manager that any binaries shipped by Ubuntu under licenses that don't grant an explicit right to redistribute the binaries can't be redistributed without permission or rebuilding. When I asked for clarification from Canonical over a year ago, I got no response[2]. Perhaps Canonical don't want to force you to remove every single use of the word Ubuntu from derivative works, but their policy is written such that the natural reading is that they do, and they've refused every single opportunity they've been given to clarify the point.

So, we're left with a policy that makes it hugely impractical to redistribute modified versions of Ubuntu unless Canonical approve of it. That's not freedom, and it's certainly not Ubuntu. If Canonical are serious about participating in the free software community then they need to demonstrate their willingness to continue improving this policy to bring it closer to our goals. Failure to do so will give a strong indication of their priorities.

[1] While I'm a member of the FSF's board of directors, I'm not involved in the majority of the FSF's day to day activities and was not part of this process
[2] Nebula's OS was a mixture of binary packages we pulled straight from Ubuntu and packages we rebuilt, so we were obviously pretty interested in what the answer was

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Syndicated 2015-07-15 19:20:38 from Matthew Garrett

Anti Evil Maid 2 Turbo Edition

The Evil Maid attack has been discussed for some time - in short, it's the idea that most security mechanisms on your laptop can be subverted if an attacker is able to gain physical access to your system (for instance, by pretending to be the maid in a hotel). Most disk encryption systems will fall prey to the attacker replacing the initial boot code of your system with something that records and then exfiltrates your decryption passphrase the next time you type it, at which point the attacker can simply steal your laptop the next day and get hold of all your data.

There are a couple of ways to protect against this, and they both involve the TPM. Trusted Platform Modules are small cryptographic devices on the system motherboard[1]. They have a bunch of Platform Configuration Registers (PCRs) that are cleared on power cycle but otherwise have slightly strange write semantics - attempting to write a new value to a PCR will append the new value to the existing value, take the SHA-1 of that and then store this SHA-1 in the register. During a normal boot, each stage of the boot process will take a SHA-1 of the next stage of the boot process and push that into the TPM, a process called "measurement". Each component is measured into a separate PCR - PCR0 contains the SHA-1 of the firmware itself, PCR1 contains the SHA-1 of the firmware configuration, PCR2 contains the SHA-1 of any option ROMs, PCR5 contains the SHA-1 of the bootloader and so on.

If any component is modified, the previous component will come up with a different measurement and the PCR value will be different, Because you can't directly modify PCR values[2], this modified code will only be able to set the PCR back to the "correct" value if it's able to generate a sequence of writes that will hash back to that value. SHA-1 isn't yet sufficiently broken for that to be practical, so we can probably ignore that. The neat bit here is that you can then use the TPM to encrypt small quantities of data[3] and ask it to only decrypt that data if the PCR values match. If you change the PCR values (by modifying the firmware, bootloader, kernel and so on), the TPM will refuse to decrypt the material.

Bitlocker uses this to encrypt the disk encryption key with the TPM. If the boot process has been tampered with, the TPM will refuse to hand over the key and your disk remains encrypted. This is an effective technical mechanism for protecting against people taking images of your hard drive, but it does have one fairly significant issue - in the default mode, your disk is decrypted automatically. You can add a password, but the obvious attack is then to modify the boot process such that a fake password prompt is presented and the malware exfiltrates the data. The TPM won't hand over the secret, so the malware flashes up a message saying that the system must be rebooted in order to finish installing updates, removes itself and leaves anyone except the most paranoid of users with the impression that nothing bad just happened. It's an improvement over the state of the art, but it's not a perfect one.

Joanna Rutkowska came up with the idea of Anti Evil Maid. This can take two slightly different forms. In both, a secret phrase is generated and encrypted with the TPM. In the first form, this is then stored on a USB stick. If the user suspects that their system has been tampered with, they boot from the USB stick. If the PCR values are good, the secret will be successfully decrypted and printed on the screen. The user verifies that the secret phrase is correct and reboots, satisfied that their system hasn't been tampered with. The downside to this approach is that most boots will not perform this verification, and so you rely on the user being able to make a reasonable judgement about whether it's necessary on a specific boot.

The second approach is to do this on every boot. The obvious problem here is that in this case an attacker simply boots your system, copies down the secret, modifies your system and simply prints the correct secret. To avoid this, the TPM can have a password set. If the user fails to enter the correct password, the TPM will refuse to decrypt the data. This can be attacked in a similar way to Bitlocker, but can be avoided with sufficient training: if the system reboots without the user seeing the secret, the user must assume that their system has been compromised and that an attacker now has a copy of their TPM password.

This isn't entirely great from a usability perspective. I think I've come up with something slightly nicer, and certainly more Web 2.0[4]. Anti Evil Maid relies on having a static secret because expecting a user to remember a dynamic one is pretty unreasonable. But most security conscious people rely on dynamic secret generation daily - it's the basis of most two factor authentication systems. TOTP is an algorithm that takes a seed, the time of day and some reasonably clever calculations and comes up with (usually) a six digit number. The secret is known by the device that you're authenticating against, and also by some other device that you possess (typically a phone). You type in the value that your phone gives you, the remote site confirms that it's the value it expected and you've just proven that you possess the secret. Because the secret depends on the time of day, someone copying that value won't be able to use it later.

But instead of using your phone to identify yourself to a remote computer, we can use the same technique to ensure that your computer possesses the same secret as your phone. If the PCR states are valid, the computer will be able to decrypt the TOTP secret and calculate the current value. This can then be printed on the screen and the user can compare it against their phone. If the values match, the PCR values are valid. If not, the system has been compromised. Because the value changes over time, merely booting your computer gives your attacker nothing - printing an old value won't fool the user[5]. This allows verification to be a normal part of every boot, without forcing the user to type in an additional password.

I've written a prototype implementation of this and uploaded it here. Do pay attention to the list of limitations - without a bootloader that measures your kernel and initrd, you're still open to compromise. Adding TPM support to grub is on my list of things to do. There are also various potential issues like an attacker being able to use external DMA-capable devices to obtain the secret, especially since most Linux distributions still ship kernels that don't enable the IOMMU by default. And, of course, if your firmware is inherently untrustworthy there's multiple ways it can subvert this all. So treat this very much like a research project rather than something you can depend on right now. There's a fair amount of work to do to turn this into a meaningful improvement in security.

[1] I wrote about them in more detail here, including a discussion of whether they can be used for general purpose DRM (answer: not really)

[2] In theory, anyway. In practice, TPMs are embedded devices running their own firmware, so who knows what bugs they're hiding.

[3] On the order of 128 bytes or so. If you want to encrypt larger things with a TPM, the usual way to do it is to generate an AES key, encrypt your material with that and then encrypt the AES key with the TPM.

[4] Is that even a thing these days? What do we say instead?

[5] Assuming that the user is sufficiently diligent in checking the value, anyway

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Syndicated 2015-07-06 17:39:26 from Matthew Garrett

Internet abuse culture is a tech industry problem

After Jesse Frazelle blogged about the online abuse she receives, a common reaction in various forums[1] was "This isn't a tech industry problem - this is what being on the internet is like"[2]. And yes, they're right. Abuse of women on the internet isn't limited to people in the tech industry. But the severity of a problem is a product of two separate factors: its prevalence and what impact it has on people.

Much of the modern tech industry relies on our ability to work with people outside our company. It relies on us interacting with a broader community of contributors, people from a range of backgrounds, people who may be upstream on a project we use, people who may be employed by competitors, people who may be spending their spare time on this. It means listening to your users, hearing their concerns, responding to their feedback. And, distressingly, there's significant overlap between that wider community and the people engaging in the abuse. This abuse is often partly technical in nature. It demonstrates understanding of the subject matter. Sometimes it can be directly tied back to people actively involved in related fields. It's from people who might be at conferences you attend. It's from people who are participating in your mailing lists. It's from people who are reading your blog and using the advice you give in their daily jobs. The abuse is coming from inside the industry.

Cutting yourself off from that community impairs your ability to do work. It restricts meeting people who can help you fix problems that you might not be able to fix yourself. It results in you missing career opportunities. Much of the work being done to combat online abuse relies on protecting the victim, giving them the tools to cut themselves off from the flow of abuse. But that risks restricting their ability to engage in the way they need to to do their job. It means missing meaningful feedback. It means passing up speaking opportunities. It means losing out on the community building that goes on at in-person events, the career progression that arises as a result. People are forced to choose between putting up with abuse or compromising their career.

The abuse that women receive on the internet is unacceptable in every case, but we can't ignore the effects of it on our industry simply because it happens elsewhere. The development model we've created over the past couple of decades is just too vulnerable to this kind of disruption, and if we do nothing about it we'll allow a large number of valuable members to be driven away. We owe it to them to make things better.

[1] Including Hacker News, which then decided to flag the story off the front page because masculinity is fragile

[2] Another common reaction was "But men get abused as well", which I'm not even going to dignify with a response

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Syndicated 2015-07-06 17:37:22 from Matthew Garrett

This is not the UEFI backdoor you are looking for

This is currently the top story on the Linux subreddit. It links to this Tweet which demonstrates using a System Management Mode backdoor to perform privilege escalation under Linux. This is not a story.

But first, some background. System Management Mode (SMM) is a feature in most x86 processors since the 386SL back in 1990. It allows for certain events to cause the CPU to stop executing the OS, jump to an area of hidden RAM and execute code there instead, and then hand off back to the OS without the OS knowing what just happened. This allows you to do things like hardware emulation (SMM is used to make USB keyboards look like PS/2 keyboards before the OS loads a USB driver), fan control (SMM will run even if the OS has crashed and lets you avoid the cost of an additional chip to turn the fan on and off) or even more complicated power management (some server vendors use SMM to read performance counters in the CPU and adjust the memory and CPU clocks without the OS interfering).

In summary, SMM is a way to run a bunch of non-free code that probably does a worse job than your OS does in most cases, but is occasionally helpful (it's how your laptop prevents random userspace from overwriting your firmware, for instance). And since the RAM that contains the SMM code is hidden from the OS, there's no way to audit what it does. Unsurprisingly, it's an interesting vector to insert malware into - you could configure it so that a process can trigger SMM and then have the resulting SMM code find that process's credentials structure and change it so it's running as root.

And that's what Dmytro has done - he's written code that sits in that hidden area of RAM and can be triggered to modify the state of the running OS. But he's modified his own firmware in order to do that, which isn't something that's possible without finding an existing vulnerability in either the OS or (or more recently, and) the firmware. It's an excellent demonstration that what we knew to be theoretically possible is practically possible, but it's not evidence of such a backdoor being widely deployed.

What would that evidence look like? It's more difficult to analyse binary code than source, but it would still be possible to trace firmware to observe everything that's dropped into the SMM RAM area and pull it apart. Sufficiently subtle backdoors would still be hard to find, but enough effort would probably uncover them. A PC motherboard vendor managed to leave the source code to their firmware on an open FTP server and copies leaked into the wild - if there's a ubiquitous backdoor, we'd expect to see it there.

But still, the fact that system firmware is mostly entirely closed is still a problem in engendering trust - the means to inspect large quantities binary code for vulnerabilities is still beyond the vast majority of skilled developers, let alone the average user. Free firmware such as Coreboot gets part way to solving this but still doesn't solve the case of the pre-flashed firmware being backdoored and then installing the backdoor into any new firmware you flash.

This specific case may be based on a misunderstanding of Dmytro's work, but figuring out ways to make it easier for users to trust that their firmware is tamper free is going to be increasingly important over the next few years. I have some ideas in that area and I hope to have them working in the near future.

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Syndicated 2015-05-27 06:38:17 from Matthew Garrett

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